Algorithm of selecting the equipment for CCTV

Parameter to be defined
Black and White system or color system?
Black and White system:
  • higher resolution
  • better sensitivity
  • cost effective
    Color system: more informative
Cameras number
  • "What should be seen?"
  • Camera locations
  • Angles of view
Lens focal length
From the obtained angles of view
Camera parameters
  • Generally, the resolution for outdoor cameras should be higher
  • The resolution is selected with certain reserve considering that resulting resolution of the whole video system will be worse as it is effected by all items (from lens to monitor)
It is defined by illumination on the object, by presence or absence of artificial light and IR-backlight
Adaptation to changing of illumination
  • For indoors installation: the camera EI is enough
  • For outdoors installation the AI lens control is generally required (direct drive is more preferable - the lens is cheaper)
Observation of quickly moving objects or transient processes                                 
Manually set ES
Absence of video outline at backlight
Backlight compensation
Need for camera synchronization
  • For the cameras with DC power supply: external synchronization
  • For the cameras with mains supply: line lock
Microphone availability
If audio channel arrangement is needed
Power supply
  • Availability of power supply
  • Requirement for uninterruptible power supply
  • Standard case (for standard installations)
  • Board (for covert installations)
  • Of special design
Specific requirements
  • Availability of built-in IR-backlight
  • Mirror function
  • Waterproof design
  • Availability of connecting to computer net or to PC USB-port
Lens parameters
Depends on the image sensor format, often matches it.
Iris type
  • Fixed (illumination level at an object is known and constant)
  • Manual (sensitivity level is constant)
  • Auto Iris
Auto Iris
  • VD (it is available for the majority of standard design cameras)
  • DD - it is more preferable (the lens is more cost effective) if the camera allows
  • Remote control (for varifocal motorized zoom lenses)
Focal length
  • Fixed focal length
  • Varifocal manual zoom lens
  • Varifocal motorized zoom lens
Camera adaptation to environment conditions (temperature, humidity, dust, chemically active agents etc.
  • Housing
  • Built-in power supply
  • Washer
  • Wiper
  • Fan
Camera (housing) support
  • Fixed (bracket or mounting fixture for mounting on a wall, ceiling, post or pole)
  • The bracket which allows changing of camera angle of view (Pan & Tilt system)
Pan & Tilt system
  • For closely located cameras - Pan & Tilt unit with keyboard
  • For multiple remote cameras - Pan & Tilt units, telemetry receivers and controller
  • High-speed dome cameras
Anti-vandal protection at an object
  • A hollow bracket for cable routing to the corresponding housing, special screws
  • Alarm sensors near cameras
Protection against low illumination at an object
  • Standard artificial light
  • IR-lamp with halogen bulb or IR-LEDs, power supply
Method of video data processing
  • Parallel, without information loss ("own" monitor is connected to each camera)
  • Serial (using a switcher)
  • Quasi-parallel, up to 4 inputs (screen splitter)
  • Quasi-parallel-serial, up to 8 inputs (two-page screen splitter)
  • Quasi-parallel, generally up to 16 inputs (multiplexer)
Automatic detection of activity or intrusion
Video sensor
Video data display
  • Standard monitor or the monitor with additional features (built-in switcher, screen splitter, audio channel, etc). If several video observation points are required, the cameras availability per each point is provided for (preferably, in a Table form), the dwell time during 24 hours, functioning in alarm mode
  • Computer with video inputs PCB
Video recording
  • Time lapse video recorder and multiplexer
  • Digital video recorder
  • Computer
Note. It is advisable to display the recording time per each camera (in case of multiple multiplexers in a video system it is recommended, in order to reduce camera's strob effect, to connect the cameras recorded at night and recorded in daylight to a single multiplexer. Thus, the number of video inputs in a switchable sequence is reduced), alarm recording, activity mode recording
Remote control
Devices with corresponding ports and keyboards
Alarm functions
  • Switching of a switcher to an alarm zone display
  • Switching to a full-screen display of an alarm zone
  • A transfer from a full-screen display of the zone without alarm to a multi-screen display
  • A transfer to alarm recording mode
  • Changing of a camera orientation
  • Buzzer activation
  • Triggering of relay contacts to activate auxiliary devices
Video transmission
  • Coaxial cable (in case of long distances video amplifiers are recommended)
  • Fiber-optic cable
  • Twisted pair cable
  • Telephone line
  • Computer network
  • Radio channel